Rigaku ZSX Primus II delivers rapid quantitative determination of major and minor atomic elements, from beryllium (Be) through uranium (U), in a wide variety of sample types — with minimal standards.
Tube above optics for superior reliability
ZSX Primus II features an innovative optics-above configuration. Never again worry about a contaminated beam path or down time due to sample chamber maintenance. The optics-above geometry eliminates cleaning worries and increases up time.
Low-Z performance with mapping and multi-spot analysis
Providing superior performance with the flexibility for analyzing the most complex samples, the ZSX Primus II features a 30 micron tube, the thinnest end-window tube available in the industry, for exceptional light element (low-Z) detection limits. Combined with the most advanced mapping package to detect homogeneity and inclusions, the ZSX Primus II allows easy detailed investigation of samples that provide analytical insights not easily obtained by other analytical methodologies. Available multi-spot analysis also helps to eliminate sampling errors in inhomogeneous materials.
SQX fundamental parameters with EZ-scan software
EZ-scan allows users to analyze unknown samples without any prior setup. This time saving feature requires only a few clicks of the mouse and a sample name to be entered. Combined with SQX fundamental parameters software, it provides the most accurate and rapid XRF results possible. SQX is capable of automatically correcting for all matrix effects, including line overlaps. SQX can also correct for secondary excitation effect by photoelectrons (light and ultra-light elements), varying atmospheres, impurities and different sample sizes. Increased accuracy is achieved using matching library and perfect scan analysis programs.
• Analysis of elements from Be to U
• Tube above optics minimizes contamination issues
• Small footprint uses less valuable lab space
• Micro analysis to analyze samples as small as 500 µm
• 30μ tube delivers superior light element performance
• Mapping feature for elemental topography/distribution
• Helium seal means the optics are always under vacuum
This application note demonstrates quantitative analysis of low concentration sulfur in diesel fuel, gasoline and kerosene according to ASTM D2622-10 on Rigaku ZSX Primus, a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometer.
Sulfur in petroleum-based fuels contributes to atmospheric pollution. Sulfur content in fuels, especially in automobile fuels, is strictly controlled and regulations of sulfur content in fuel oil such as diesel fuel and gasoline have been tightened. Therefore, control of sulfur content is very important in refinery plants. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been used for quantitative analysis of sulfur in petroleum-based fuels, owing to simple sample preparation. In XRF analysis of fuel oil, samples are simply poured into liquid cells and any complicated treatment such as chemical decomposition or dilution is not required. In addition, concentration of total sulfur is obtained in XRF analysis.
Every industry in the United States regulates production and manufacturing of goods for quality and accuracy. One way to regulate an industrial process is through a Quality Control (QC) Quantitative Calibration with a WDXRF (wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence) spectrometer, such as the Rigaku ZSX Primus II spectrometer.
A WDXRF quantitative calibration consists of a precisely measured analytical method that is optimized for the material being analyzed with a variety of reference standards. When reference materials are not available to set up a Quantitative Calibration method, the Rigaku ZSX software offers a Semi-Quantitative or standardless quantitative evaluation that can be used for QC and differentiation of product types.
The table shows data collected on three different certified reference materials using the Rigaku Primus II. B.S. T-22 is titanium alloy standard. Ult1233 (64B) is a cobalt alloy standard. Inco 690 (201A) is a nickel alloy standard.
Due to the hazards of trace heavy metals on the environment, many regulations have been established to lower the limits of these components drastically from previous acceptable levels in various products. X-ray fluorescence analysis is widely used in process control, quality control and other fields because it can perform qualitative and quantitative analyses quickly and non-destructively. Advances in fundamental parameter methods and the use of the SQX analysis programs to calculate semi-quantitative values from qualitative analysis results without the need for standards are becoming more prevalent. As an example consider the determination of trace Pb in TiO2 powder, a pigment widely used in cosmetics to obtain a desired color. Three different cosmetic samples were pressed at 20 tons of pressure using an Al ring to form a pellet and run on the Rigaku ZSX Primus II XRF spectrometer. The measurements conditions are listed in Table 1.
Motor vehicle catalytic converters provide an environment for chemical reactions in which toxic combustion by-products such as nitrous oxides, carbon monoxide and unburnt hydrocarbons are converted to safe or less toxic substances including oxygen, nitrogen, water vapor and carbon dioxide. A refractory ceramic monolith with a honeycomb structure forms the core of the converter to which an alumina "washcoat" is applied at 10-50 μm for increased surface area to boost efficiency. The catalyst itself, typically the noble metals platinum, palladium and rhodium, are incorporated into the washcoat in suspension before it is applied to the core. Barium sulfate and rare earth compounds such as a ceria-zirconia solid solution, lanthana and hafnia are also commonly added as oxygen storage materials, thermal and surface area stabilizers, and promoters.
This application note demonstrates beryllium analysis in beryllium copper alloy.
Beryllium copper alloy has almost as high strength as steel, the strongest among copper alloys. In addition, it has various features such as non-magnetic and non-sparking characteristics, having high electric conductivity and ductility. Owing to these features, beryllium copper has many uses; springs, electric connectors, tools in environments with explosive vapors and gases, and music instruments. Since characteristics and uses of beryllium copper alloys depend on beryllium concentration, it is important to analyze beryllium in beryllium copper. Beryllium is the lightest element among the elements which can be analyzed by XRF spectrometry. The element line of beryllium, Be-Kα has very long wavelength, 11.4 nm (or very low energy, 0.109 keV), having very shallow critical depth. Therefore, X-ray intensities of Be-Kα are significantly affected by the surface condition of specimens. For beryllium analysis by XRF spectrometry, surface treatment is essential. Owing to the long wavelength of Be-Kα, beryllium analysis requires high-power wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometers equipped with the analyzing crystal with high reflectivity for Be-Kα.
Failure analysis can involve many analytical techniques to determine the cause for failure. WDXRF has been proven to be a very useful method to aid in failure analysis since in many cases elemental composition can be central to determining the failure mode. With today's modern semi-quantitative methods, which operate without needing elemental standards, the analysis can be performed quickly and easily.
As an example we analyzed a sediment deposited in a water chiller thought to be important for the potential failure of an X-ray instrument in our own laboratory. In this case only two grams of powdered sample was recovered for analysis. The sample was prepared by drying and placing it into a plastic sample cell with Prolene film as the surface analyzing window, as seen in Figure 1....
In an effort to better understand the world around us, geologists are always striving to make new petrographic discoveries about even the most commonplace materials seen every day. Granite is one such material. Due to vast elemental variety found in mined granite, an interesting analytical opportunity presents itself, in which an elemental map or profile analysis capability would be ideal. In the field of modern, cutting-edge wavelength-dispersive XRF technology, this analytical capability exists only in Rigaku's ZSX Primus series of WDXRF research-grade spectrometers.
This application note demonstrates quantitative analysis for lubricating oil according to ASTM D6443-04 on Rigaku ZSX Primus, a wavelength-dispersive XRF spectrometer.
Lubricating oil is given functional properties for specific purposes by mixing additives with base oil. Therefore, it is very important to control concentrations of additive elements in production plants of lubricating oil. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been used for quantitative analysis of additive elements such as Mg, P and Zn in lubricating oil owing to high precision and simple sample preparation of XRF analysis. In the XRF analysis of lubricating oil, a sample is simply poured into a liquid cell, and any complicated treatment such as chemical decomposition or dilution is not required.